In this tutorial we will cover the steps needed to install Git server on your CentOS 6.4, Debian or Ubuntu platform.

Requirements

  • CentOS 6.4, Debian or Ubuntu installed on your computer/server
  • SSH access (Command line access to the server)
  • root privileges
  • Basic skills for working on a Linux environment

GIT is a very popular and efficient open source Version Control System. It tracks content such as files and directories. GIT stores the file content in BLOBs (binary large objects). The folders are represented as trees. Each tree contains other trees (subfolders) and BLOBs along with a simple text file which consists of the mode, type, name and SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) of each blob and subtree entry. During repository transfers, even if there are several files with the same content and different names, the GIT software will transfer the BLOB once and then expand it to the different files.

Install Git

CentOS 6.4:

The Git installation can be easily complete through the yum default package manager:

You will be prompted to accept the installation and additional package dependencies will be displayed.

Alternative installation way in case you want to have the latest Git version available is to install the software from source:

Prior that installation we have to install some dependencies required by Git:

Once done we can download the latest Git package from github.com:

We will continue with configuration of the installation and building of the Git executables:

Debian/Ubuntu:

We can use the aptitude package manager for the installation:

You will be prompted to accept the installation and additional package dependencies will be displayed.

Alternative installation way in case you want to have the latest Git version available is to install the software from source:

Prior that installation we have to install some dependencies required by Git:

Once done we can download the latest Git package from github.com:

After that initiate the installation:

Configure Git user

After the Git installation you should set your configuration:

A new file called .gitconfig will be created inside your home folder where the configuration will be saved. This step is important since the above details will appear when you commit modifications in the repository.

Here is a list of the most common Git commands:

  • git config - Sets configuration values for your user name, email, gpg key, preferred diff algorithm, file formats and more.
    Example: git config --global user.name "My Name" git config --global user.email "user@domain.com" cat ~/.gitconfig [user] name = My Name email = user@domain.com
  • git init - Initializes a git repository – creates the initial '.git' directory in a new or in an existing project.
    Example: cd /home/user/my_new_git_folder/ git init
  • git clone - Makes a Git repository copy from a remote source. Also adds the original location as a remote so you can fetch from it again and push to it if you have permissions.
    Example: git clone git@github.com:user/test.git
  • git add - Adds files changes in your working directory to your index.
    Example: git add .
  • git rm - Removes files from your index and your working directory so they will not be tracked.
    Example: git rm filename
  • git commit - Takes all of the changes written in the index, creates a new commit object pointing to it and sets the branch to point to that new commit. Examples: git commit -m 'committing added changes' git commit -a -m 'committing all changes, equals to git add and git commit'
  • git status - Shows you the status of files in the index versus the working directory. It will list out files that are untracked (only in your working directory), modified (tracked but not yet updated in your index), and staged (added to your index and ready for committing).
    Example: git status # On branch master # # Initial commit # # Untracked files: # (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed) # # README nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
  • git branch - Lists existing branches, including remote branches if '-a' is provided. Creates a new branch if a branch name is provided.
    Example: git branch -a * master remotes/origin/master
  • git checkout - Checks out a different branch – switches branches by updating the index, working tree, and HEAD to reflect the chosen branch.
    Example: git checkout newbranch
  • git merge - Merges one or more branches into your current branch and automatically creates a new commit if there are no conflicts.
    Example: git merge newbranchversion
  • git reset - Resets your index and working directory to the state of your last commit.
    Example: git reset --hard HEAD
  • git stash - Temporarily saves changes that you don't want to commit immediately. You can apply the changes later.
    Example: git stash Saved working directory and index state "WIP on master: 84f241e first commit" HEAD is now at 84f241e first commit (To restore them type "git stash apply")
  • git tag - Tags a specific commit with a simple, human readable handle that never moves.
    Example: git tag -a v1.0 -m 'this is version 1.0 tag'
  • git fetch - Fetches all the objects from the remote repository that are not present in the local one.
    Example: git fetch origin
  • git pull - Fetches the files from the remote repository and merges it with your local one. This command is equal to the git fetch and the git merge sequence.
    Example: git pull origin
  • git push - Pushes all the modified local objects to the remote repository and advances its branches.
    Example: git push origin master
  • git remote - Shows all the remote versions of your repository.
    Example: git remote origin
  • git log - Shows a listing of commits on a branch including the corresponding details.
    Example: git log commit 84f241e8a0d768fb37ff7ad40e294b61a99a0abe Author: User <user@domain.com> Date: Mon May 3 09:24:05 2010 +0300 first commit
  • git show - Shows information about a git object.
    Example: git show commit 84f241e8a0d768fb37ff7ad40e294b61a99a0abe Author: User <user@domain.com> Date: Mon May 3 09:24:05 2010 +0300 first commit diff --git a/README b/README new file mode 100644 index 0000000..e69de29
  • git ls-tree - Shows a tree object, including the mode and the name of each item and the SHA-1 value of the blob or the tree that it points to.
    Example: git ls-tree master^{tree} 100644 blob e69de29bb2d1d6434b8b29ae775ad8c2e48c5391 README
  • git cat-file - Used to view the type of an object through the SHA-1 value.
    Example: git cat-file -t e69de29bb2d1d6434b8b29ae775ad8c2e48c5391 blob
  • git grep - Lets you search through your trees of content for words and phrases.
    Example: git grep "www.siteground.com" -- *.php
  • git diff - Generates patch files or statistics of differences between paths or files in your git repository, or your index or your working directory.
    Example: git diff
  • git archive - Creates a tar or zip file including the contents of a single tree from your repository.
    Example: git archive --format=zip master^ README >file.zip
  • git gc - Garbage collector for your repository. Optimizes your repository. Should be run occasionally.
    Example: git gc Counting objects: 7, done. Delta compression using up to 2 threads. Compressing objects: 100% (5/5), done. Writing objects: 100% (7/7), done. Total 7 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0)
  • git fsck - Does an integrity check of the Git file system, identifying corrupted objects.
    Example: git fsck
  • git prune - Removes objects that are no longer pointed to by any object in any reachable branch.
    Example: git prune